Saturday, May 23, 2020
A critical appraisal of a published piece of research related to practice. Evidence Based Practice - HEN62029-5 Student number 10039687 Word count 3150 The following ssion of this assignment attempts to critically appraise the venUS III randomised control trial (RTC) published in the British Medical Journal. As a student/healthcare worker who is new to critical appraisal I am aware that I do not fully understand some of the calculations involved in reporting of findings, however Greenhalgh (2006) argued, Ã¢â¬Ëall you really need to know is what the best test is to apply in given circumstances, what it does and what might affect its validity/appropriatenessÃ¢â¬â¢. When caring for patients it is essential that Healthcare ProfessionalsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The nurses providing treatment where not blind to which treatment had been allocated, this may impact on construct validity as in some cases it is suggested that control subjects are compensated in some way by healthcare staff or family for not receiving research intervention (Barker 2010). Nurses who were blinded were employed to trace the ulcers. Participating patients were not blind to the treatment/s. As one of the measured outcomes was patients perceptions of health, assessed by a questionnaire (SF-12) it is reasonable t o conceive that this assessment may have been influenced by the patients awareness of the treatment type they were receiving thus creating the possibility for assessment bias. Construct validity may also be impacted on peoples behaviours as a response to being observed or to the treatment because they believe it will have a positive effect. (Barker 2010) Healing date was assessed remotely by independent assessors who where blind to the treatment allocation this guards against assessment bias. Overall both treatment groups were equal in size. Both treatment groups had an almost equal average age of study participants, this is important because inequality in age between the groups would represent a heterogeneous population (Barker 2010). Venous leg ulceration is more common in woman than men in those below 85 year of age (Moffat 2004)Show MoreRelatedEvidence Based Practice And Practice1007 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesItroduction: Evidence-based practice is an approach to medicine that uses scientific evidence to determine the best practice (Beyea Slattery, 2006). As nurses perform their daily tasks they must continually ask themselves, Ã¢â¬Å"What is the evidence for this intervention?Ã¢â¬ . Nurses are well positioned to question current nursing practices and use evidence to make care more effective. In order to improve patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ outcomes it is the responsibility of the nurse to transition evidence-based practice into theRead MoreEvidence Based Practice4004 Words Ã | Ã 17 PagesIn this essay, I am going to consider how evidence-based practice can be used to support, justify, legitimate and/or improve clinical practice. I am also going to explore and discuss primary and secondary research evidences about how nursing interventions can potentially improve the quality of life of patients in the community suffering from heart failure. I will gather these evidences using a literature search which I will include an account of. Using a critiquing framework for support, I willRead MoreEvidence Based Practice For Nursing Practice2023 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesHeitkemper Bucher (2014), Ã¢â¬Å"Evidence-based practice is a problem-solving approach to clinical decision making. It involves the use of the best available evidence in combination with clinical expertise and patient preferences and values to achieve desired patient outcomes.Ã¢â¬ Using evidence based practice in nursing is extremely important, because evidence-based practice is the result of other s trying a practice one way but needing to change some of the guidelines to make the practice safer and over all betterRead MoreEvidence Based Practice in Nursing1565 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTitle: Evidence Based Practice in Nursing Name Course Tutor April 20th, 2013 Introduction The paper herein provides a critical discussion of evidence based practice (EBP) in nursing. It clearly elaborates on the meaning and definition of EBP as used by nurses as well as the importance of evidence based decision making as it relates to nursing care. It broadly examines the concept of EBP in nursing care and its relevance to nursing practice and to the delivery of quality patient careRead MoreThe Research Evidence Based Practice1174 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrole in research evidence based practice in nursing care. Transplant nurses should practice transplant nursing that is based on evidence. Institute of medicine reported that by 2020, 90% of clinical decisions should be based on evidence, but today 12% to 14% clinical decisions are only based on evidence. Pravikoff and colleagues surveyed 3000 nurses in United States with a 37% response rate .Fifty-eight percent of responding nurses had never used research to support their practice and 46% had neverRead MoreBarriers to Evide nce-Based Practices588 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesEvidence-based practice requires ready access to external evidence that can lead to up-to-date clinical decision making. Meanwhile, libraries have been under growing funding pressure when physiotherapists have been adapting evidence-based practice. Journal subscription prices have increased intensely past ten years in the field of medicine, the average price increase over this period was 304% (Albee Dingley 2000). A lot of library budgets are unable to afford such increases and libraries have hadRead MoreExploring Evidence Based Practice And Practice Essay1638 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTitle Exploring Evidence to Enhance Learning and Practice Assignment details Drawing on a range of evidence discuss how different types of research can be used to support practice. 1500 words Ã ± 10% Word count 1647 Contents Introduction 2 Quantitative Data 3 Qualitative Data 4 Systematic Reviews 5 Conclusion 7 References 8 Introduction This piece of work will be exploring the different forms of research and their significance in the evidence-based practice. What is researchRead MoreThe Application Of Evidence Based Practice1388 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The application of Evidence Based Practice (EBP) requires doctors, nurses and other healthcare staff to be proficient in conducting quality research of peer reviewed academic literature (Introduction to Evidence-Based Practice, 2016). This process enables them to obtain appropriate and relevant evidence to support medical decisions. For example, to support the medical management of preterm births within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community (Ã¢â¬Å"Health of Australia s Aboriginal PeoplesÃ¢â¬ Read MoreEvidence Based Practice For Nursing Practice2100 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesEvidence-Base practice (EBP) is defined as: Ã¢â¬Å"based on problem identified from the practitionerÃ¢â¬â¢s area of practice; a combining of best evidence and professional expertise and an integration of this into current practice; about ensuring patients receive quality care, being part of quality improvement processes; about collaboration and requiring a team approachÃ¢â¬ (French, 1999). Scott and Mcsherry (2008) supported the FrenchÃ¢â¬â¢s assertion, proposing the key elements of EBP are that it is a theory-drivenRead MoreApplication Of Evidence Based Practice1689 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction Evidence Based Practice (EBP) is the process nurses use to conduct research and find recent and credible evidence to support best practice (McCutcheon, 2009). The process of EBP will be applied to the case study about a nurse who did not use EBP in her nursing process. This is important because providing EBP is a core philosophy in the ANMC competency standards for the registered nurse (The Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, 2016). The report will on build assignment one where
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Confidential Memorandum Date: October 25, 2014 Subject: Metal Whistle From: Rebecca Cruz, Elementary Division Manager Company: WGU Toys To: Robert Smith, CEO of WGU Toys Cc: Executive Team Analysis: The Quality Assurance Department has just notified me of a possible problem with one the toys included in the elementary toy collection. During routine testing, the Quality Assurance Department has detected small amounts of lead included in the toy collection; the whistles are slightly above the U.S. legally acceptable limits for the children ages 7 and younger. Effective on February 10, 2009, section 101 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act sets new limits on lead content in any childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s product as defined in the Act. Generally, beginning on February 10, 2009, any childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s product that contains more than 600 parts per million (ppm) of lead in any part that is accessible will be treated as a banned hazardous substance (Total Lead Content, n.d). The whistles are scheduled to be shipped to schools in South America at the end of the week, unless we decide on a different alternative that will be provided in this report. There are three alternatives we may look as an option for the company: 1) Reproduce the product; cost evaluation reproducing and repackaging the toy collections is $100, 000. 2) Replace a product with a similar line that we may carry that has passed quality assurance standards. 3) Ship the toy as is, with the toys being just slightly aboveShow MoreRelatedProblem And Purpose Of A Project1653 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesprojects fail like due to management issues, Quality issues, insufficient resources, Estimation of costs and schedules and so on. One of the main important factors to care for any project to be successful is the Ã¢â¬Å"QualityÃ¢â¬ . In the past few decades there are thousands of projects which failed due to poor quality processes they followed. Space Shuttle Challenger which is one of the biggest disasters in the history of USA is one of the examples of poor quality assurance. On January 28, 1986, after few minutesRead MoreServe As The Contracting Officer s Representative915 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdocumentation, creating Technical Evaluation Factors, developing Quality Assurance Plans, working with Subject Matter Experts to document contract deliverables, and developing Performance measures. Responsible for administering contracts and monitoring contractor performance to ensure that services performed by the contractor are in accordance with the contract. This includes reviewing project plans, accepting formal deliverables such as Quality Assurance Plans, Project Management Plans, Risk Management PlansRead MoreVendor Selection Process Redesign Proposal For Procurement1046 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Steve Phillips, Sr. Lead of Purchasing Department From: Peter Williams Date: July 16, 2015 Subject: Vendor selection process redesign proposal for procurement The purpose of this proposal is to improve or change the vendor selection process to purchase of goods and services from Third Party Company for production of company products. In the company, the vendor selection process is managed by a project manager with the help of purchasing department. This includes the following process: Ã¢â¬ ¢ IdentificationRead MoreManaging Human Resources1816 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAssignment 03 December 2012 Scenario Our organization specializes in the production of metal whilst. Two months after I have been hired as the elementary division manager, the quality assurance department decided to implement a routing checking on the toy collection produced. However, the quality assurance department identified a problem with one of the toy collection. The problem is that a metal whistle included in the toy collection did not pass testing because of the small traces of lead. TheRead MoreAnalysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation of the Eagle Manufacturing Company855 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCase Name: Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation of the Eagle Manufacturing Company I. Major Facts A. Ted Jones has been the supply manager for the Eagle Manufacturing Company for the past two years. B. Although Ted Jones has a great team of buyers, expediters, and support staff who carry out top notch work, the morale in TedÃ¢â¬â¢s department is low. i. One of the senior buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s in TedÃ¢â¬â¢s department, Bill Wilson, submitted his resignation. Bill accepted a position at another companyRead MoreA Report On The Pharmaceutical Industry1633 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAnalysis of Environment: As far as the BOLD pharmaceutical industry is concerned, the environment is highly secured and confidential. All the manufacturing process should be kept very confidential. There are several protocols and policies where a pharmaceutical industry should follow: Policies and protocols related to safety: There will be a strict entry and exit procedure during the entry into the shop floor, protecting not only the manufacturing process, but also restricting the unauthorized accessRead MoreHealth Information Technology And Population Health Management Industry1606 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesyears of experience in Healthcare Information Technology (HIT), Business analysis, project management and Healthcare administration, Microsoft tools, Entrepreneurship, Team Building, Public Speaking and Strong research professional with an ECFMG certification and focused in Medicine. Graduated as a physician from the Indian medical school.Ã Well versed with good working knowledge of interpretation and implementation of various quality measures like HEDIS, ACO, GPRO, PQRS and ECQM. Strong Knowledge in internationalRead MoreQuality Assurance Case Study Essay1009 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCase Study Analysis: Hank Kolb, Director, Quality Assurance Issue This case involves a man named Hank Kolb who has recently taken on a role as the Director of Quality Assurance as a manufacturing plant. He has been brought in to ensure quality in a place that is known for have a lax attitude about quality and safety. The product described in the case is Greasex, which consists of solvents packed in cans for decreasing. The company has experience some trouble with the filling equipment Read MoreHank Kolb, Director of Quality Assurance636 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesFacts of the Case: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hank Kolb, Director of Quality Assurance is attending a seminar that is given to quality managers of manufacturing plants by the corporate training department. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hank Kolb is now looking forward to digging into the quality problems at this industrial product that plant employing 1,200 people. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The company lacks quality that needs more improvement to continue their operations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hank Kolb found problems regarding from personnel, plantRead MoreProspective Clinical Research Requires Informed Consent Essay981 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswithdraw from the research at any time with no penalty or loss of benefits. 9 9. Discuss how a quality-assurance study differs from other types of research studies. Dr. Stoller listed several examples of Quality-Assurance research. Crate your own example of a Quality-Assurance research project (10 points). A quality-assurance study is a research that gives an impact to understand and improve quality of clinical practice by analyzing all resources and techniques available within the institution
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Both No Sugar, written by Jack Davis and Once Were Warriors directed by Lee Tamohori use a number of different themes to present extensively similar criticisms of society. In the play No Sugar, an indigenous family depicts the injustices and problems they face with both the white man and themselves. Also, in Once Were Warriors we see a Maori family struggling to cope with the harsh life they face in their run-down community overrun by gangs and crime. We will write a custom essay sample on To what extent do the two texts present similar or different criticisms of society? or any similar topic only for you Order Now In both texts, the audience sees colonialist policies in extreme poverty, substance abuse, racism, violence and the effects of disintegration of the family. A major theme that is brought to light in Once Were Warriors and No Sugar is the effects of colonialism. In both texts, the characters endure racist policies and are exploited by the Ã¢â¬Å"white man lawsÃ¢â¬ and as a consequence left disenfranchised from society. In Once Were Warriors, Tamohori contrasts Jake against Beth to illustrate how the loss of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s pride and tradition ultimately leads to their downfall. Jake is described as a Ã¢â¬Å"slaveÃ¢â¬ and is clearly a victim to the laws imposed from the white invasion, opposed to Beth, who knows of a better life, involving family culture and traditions rather than crime and alcoholism; the two key reasons leading to JakeÃ¢â¬â¢s demise. Similarly, in No Sugar, we see the effects of colonialism take its toll on the characters. Due to the paternalistic role cast upon the aboriginal people by those in authority such as A. O. Neville and the Chief Protector of Aboriginals, the characters resort to crime to get by. This is apparent when Jimmy is sent away to jail for months on end and being denied any communications between him and his family, brought about by the controlling laws cast upon the indigenous population at the time. Similarly, both texts present this criticism of society through demonstrating the affect these incidents have on all the characters. In No Sugar and Once Were Warriors, another criticism of the dominant society is its capacity to marginalize its native people. In No Sugar, this is evident in the majority of times the Aboriginal family is in contact with the local Sergeant and Constable. Jimmy: Ã¢â¬Å"Six months! I can do that on me fuckinÃ¢â¬â¢ head. Ã¢â¬ Sergeant: Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ll see what I can do. Ã¢â¬ In this scene, Jimmy and Sam have been jailed in the Northam police station. This scene, and many like it which follow, demonstrates the injustices these characters face, and the paternalistic behavior of the government at the time. For this reason, the characters in the book were separated from their families and incarcerated for months and in that time, endured racist treatment while in prison. Comparable to this, Once Were Warriors depicts a racist society in a similar manner and through similar circumstances. The Heke family reside in a slum on the outskirts of the city. The family occupies a run-down government funded house in a suburb where crime and conflict with the police is an everyday occurrence. Despite being in a similar situation to the characters in No Sugar, due to the time difference, the family in Once Were Warriors are looked after by a better understanding government and legal system. This is evident when we see the son Mark in conflict with the law for misbehavior, consequently being sent to a youth camp. Unlike No Sugar, the camp that Mark is sent to proves to be a positive change in his life, one which ultimately alters the trends of his own family when he returns home. Compared to No Sugar, the racist treatment of these characters essentially produces a negative impact within their own lives and the lives of their families. Nevertheless, the creators purposely portray this theme in both texts to highlight it within our society, and in effect, through analyzing both texts the audience can notice significant gains that the characters from Once Were Warriors benefit from while the characters from No Sugar suffer as a result. Exposed in both texts, as a result of lost pride, was the theme of substance abuse, namely alcohol. Within the two texts, alcohol abuse plays a significant role in only the lives of the men, ultimately determining their behavior towards the others. In Once Were Warriors, the presence of alcohol is apparent in the majority of scenes. The main character, Jake Ã¢â¬ËThe MussÃ¢â¬â¢, relies on alcohol as a coping mechanism for the harsh, marginalized life he leads, but the affect it has on him and his family proves to be detrimental. A decisive example of this is the night that Gracie commits suicide subsequent to her uncle raping her. Throughout the whole incident, Jake remains drunk and seems to be impassive to his daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s death. The next morning we see Jake, still with a bottle in his hand drinking away his troubles. No Sugar also portrays the theme of alcohol abuse; Jimmy Munday and Sam Millimurra, his brother-in-law have been drinking heavily and they begin to fight in a wild lumbering manner. The scene has a humorous tone Ã¢â¬â especially when Gran breaks up the fight, however on a serious level it expresses the problems the characters face because of their isolation and impotence. In both texts, the theme of substance abuse is displayed intentionally to further depict the despair and disempowerment the characters face and the way in which their lives and the people around them are impacted upon. Highlighted in both texts was the way the indigenous characters, who were once proud people, become lowered to impotent helpless figures. As we see in Once Were Warriors, the unstable Jake used his fist to release the pain, anguish and frustration he feels; as Jakes wife Beth states, Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re still a slave, to your fist, to your drink, to yourself. Likewise, in No Sugar, Jimmy is portrayed as a bitter character suffering the effect of extensive alcohol abuse. In both texts, the creators include these characters to demonstrate the frustrating effects of life without power and what its like to be entirely disenfranchised from society as well as their traditional ways and culture. Throughout No Sugar and Once Were Warriors, Tamohori and Davis recognize the Ã¢â¬ËmediatorÃ¢â¬â¢ role that the women played Ã¢â¬â Beth and Gracie in Once Were Warriors and Gran and Milly in No Sugar. A significant scene which reveals BethÃ¢â¬â¢s function in the family occurs when she comforts Gracie Ã¢â¬â the only gentle soul amongst the tough family, subsequent to being physically abused by Jake. Ã¢â¬Å"[It] wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be easy, just gotta find the moneyÃ¢â¬ ¦ we will, I promiseÃ¢â¬ . This demonstrates the reassuring attitude Beth, as a mother, has towards her children despite the severe events that occur in the family, as well as the significant role in keeping her family strong and together. In the same way, Gran displays the sense of comfort and conciliation in No Sugar. Unlike Beth, Gran produces this sense of comfort through constantly resorting to their own peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s traditional songs. The existence of Gran is paramount to the survival of those around her in that through her knowledge of traditional Aboriginal ways, she brings comfort, support and hope of a better future at times where something so out of reach seems possible. The societies shown in Once Were Warriors and No Sugar are similarly presented in a critical light as both Davis and Tamohori demonstrate the conditions brought about by the effects of colonialism. Both texts also depict the power of women, and the hope they provide the surrounding characters for a better future. Both texts, intentionally, finish in a similar way in that the audience are instilled with a sense of hope that through reconnection with their heritage the characters may escape the control of the oppressive society they inhabit. How to cite To what extent do the two texts present similar or different criticisms of society?, Papers
Saturday, May 2, 2020
But Rhea hid the newborn in a cave on Mount Dicte in Crete. (To this day, the guides at the cave of Zeus use their flashlights to cast shadow puppets in the cave, creating images of baby Zeus from the myth. ) When he had grown up, Zeus caused Cronus to vomit up his sisters and brothers, and these gods joined him in fighting to wrest control of the universe from the Titans and Cronus, their king. Having vanquished his father and the other Titans, Zeus imprisoned most of them in the underworld of Tartarus. Then he and his brothers Poseidon and Hades divided up creation. Poseidon received the sea as his domain, Hades got the Underworld and Zeus took the sky. Zeus also was accorded supreme authority on earth and on Mount Olympus. Zeus was also known for having many relations with mortal and immortal alike. His offspring include Ares god of war, Eris goddess of discord, Apollo god of light, Aphrodite goddess of beauty, Hermes god of thieves and commerce, Artemis huntsman of the gods, Hephaestus god of the forge, Persephone wife of Hades, Hebe goddess of youth, Dionysus god of the vine, Epaphus, Minos King of Create, Rhadamanthus, the Muses namely, Clio (History), Urania (Astronomy), Melpomene (Tragedy), Thalia (Comedy), Terpsichore (Dance), Calliope (Epic Poetry), Erato (Love Poetry), Polyhymnia (Songs to the Gods), Euterpe (Lyric Poetry), and his favourite Athena. We will write a custom essay sample on Role of Zeus in the Iliad or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Other stories in Greek mythology include the creation of the world, the overthrowing of Cronos, creation of man by Prometheus, the lovers of Zeus who all have stories of their own, the birth of Athena, the wanderings of Dionysus and the labours of Hercules. The story of the Iliad is focusing on the Trojan War. This war is between the Trojans and the Achaeans. There are several themes in the story, one of them being the wrath of Achilles and the will of Zeus. With this I will end my introduction. The Role of the Gods in Homers Iliad If one holds the contemporary view of the Christian God then it may be difficult to comprehend the actions and motivation of the Greek deities. The Christian God does not tend to take such an active role in the affairs of peoples lives, where, on the other hand, the Greeks regarded direct involvement by the gods as a daily, uncontrollable part of life(Guthrie 17). Needless to say, divine intervention was a major variable in the equation of Homers Iliad. The gods picked who they would favor for different reasons, except Zeus. As the symbol of supreme authority and justice, he makes judgment calls as to the other gods involvement in the war, remains impartial, and doesnt seem to get caught up in picking favorites. Even when his own son, Sarpedon, was about to die, Zeus chose to let the outcome go unaltered. On the other hand, Zeuss wife, Hera, displayed the more typical actions of a god. After Paris, a Trojan, judged Aphrodite the fairest over Hera, and, after her daughter Hebe was replaced as cupbearer to the gods by a young Trojan boy, she was quite resentful towards Troy and its people. Obviously, she sided with the Greeks and would stop at nothing to express her will. Scheming and manipulating, she even dared to trick her husband, King of the Gods. Hera, along with Athena, who was also passed over by Paris, is seen as the chief divine aid to the Greeks. Being the god of the sea, Poseidon was another strong supporter of the ocean-faring Greeks. Whenever Zeus turned his back, Poseidon tried to help the Greeks in the fight. Poseidon felt that he was somewhat Zeuss equal, as his brother, but recognizing Zeuss authority and experience, he looked to Zeus as an elder. There were also Gods who favored the Trojan side of the conflict. Both Apollo and Artemis, twin brother and sister, gave aid to the city of Troy. Although Artemis takes a rather minor role, Apollo, perhaps angered by Agamemmnons refusal to ransom Khryseis, the daughter of one of his priests, and was constantly changing the course of the war in favor of the Trojans. Responsible for sending plague to the Greeks, Apollo was the first god to make an appearance in the Iliad. Also, mainly because Apollo and Artemis were on the Trojan side, their mother, Leto, also helped the Trojans. Aphrodite, obviously supporting Pariss judgement, sided with the Trojans. Although she was insignificant on the battlefield, Aphrodite was successful in convincing Ares, her lover and the god of war, to help the Trojans. One view of the gods seemingly constant intervention in the war was that they were just setting fate back on the right course. For instance, when Patroklos was killed outside of Troy, Apollo felt no guilt for his doings. It had already been decided that Patroklos would not take Troy, he should never have disobeyed Achilles in the first place. As a god, he was just setting fate on a straight line. Achilles laid blame on Hektor and the Trojans. He did not even consider accusing Apollo, who never came into question, although he was primarily responsible for the kill. Apollos part in the matter was merely accepted as a natural disaster, or illness, would be today. This general acceptance of a gods will is a recurring trend throughout the poem. A prime example of this trend is in book XXIV. Achilles, angry over the death of Patroklos brutally disgraced Hektors body. Tethering Hektors corpse through the ankles, Achilles dragged him around Patroklos tomb every day for twelve days. This barbaric treatment was uncalled for and displeased the gods greatly. Achilles mother, Thetis, was sent by Zeus to tell him to ransom the body back to the Trojans. One may think Achilles would be possessive of the body and attempt to put up a fuss as he did before with Agamemmnon in Book I. But, Achilles showed humility and respect for the gods and immediately agreed to ransom the body to the Trojans, showing that all mortals, even god-like Achilles, were answerable to the gods. This ideology would seem to give the gods a sort of unlimited freedom on earth, although, the gods could not always do as they pleased and, eventually, had to come before Zeus. Zeus acted as a balance of sorts throughout the Iliad. He had to keep the gods in order and make sure that what fate decreed, would happen. For example, after Achilles re-enters the battle, Zeus declared that if Achilles was allowed to go on slaughtering the Trojans with nothing to slow him down, he would take Troy before fate said it would happen. Therefore, to counter Achilles massive retaliation against the Trojans, Zeus allowed the gods to go back to the battle field. In Zeuss own interests, he preferred to deal with issues more personal to the individual heroes of the Iliad. This can be seen throughout the book as Zeus attempted to increase the honour of certain individuals. Zeus knew that Hektor was going to be killed by Achilles, and, feeling sorry for Hektor, Zeus attempted to allow Hektor to die an honourable death. For instance, when Hektor stripped Achilles armor off Patroklos, Zeus helped Hektor fill out the armor so he would not seem like less of a man than Achilles. Zeus also gave his word to Thetis that Achilles would gain much glory showing his involvement on a personal level. Homer used the gods, and their actions, to establish twists on the plot of the war. It would not have been possible for him to write the story without the divine interventions of the gods. Indeed, they affected every aspect of the poem in some way, shape or form. Yet, from the immortal perspective of the Greek god, the Trojan War, and everything related to it, was only a passing adventure in the great expanse of time. The Role Of Zeus in Homers Iliad In the era of Homer, divine intervention was thought to be typical, and one of his foremost works, The Iliad, reflects this. Nearly all of the Greek gods are involved in the outcome of the Trojan War, which happens to be the background story of this epic poem. The gods are used by Homer to add twists on an otherwise standard plot of war. I shall concentrate on Zeus, however, and reflect on his actions and their outcomes on the Trojan War, and more importantly, the story of The Iliad. Zeus, very untypical of a Greek god in his lack of involvement in the Trojan War for selfish reasons, was portrayed as the father figure, being impartial and fair to both sides of the war. He remains this way to serve as a check for each gods involvement in the war. Without his presence at the head of the inner circle of Olympus, it is likely that the activity of the Trojan War would become chaotic, possibly even becoming a playground of war for the gods. With Zeuss majestic power, above all of the other gods combined, along with his experience, he is quite befitting to his role in the storyline of The Iliad. The Iliad was thought to be written by a Greek minstrel named Homer. The Iliad was the first of the major epics credited to him, the second being The Odyssey. Discussion about Homer among scholars inevitably leads to controversy on nearly every conceivable issue, ranging from his birthplace to his actual composition of either of these epics. Because of our lack of reliable information, we have but a small fragment of knowledge agreed on by scholars about the writer of the first great piece of literature of Western civilization. Homer in ancient Greece was conceived as a blind, old man, singing or reciting his own compositions (History of Horticulture), and at least seven ancient Greek cities claimed to be his birthplace. His work has been questioned as to two separate ways: if one minstrel, possibly named Homer, composed these works alone, and if so, if this minstrel wrote both of these epics. It has been argued that Homer is, in fact, the collective progression of minstrels that have passed this ever-evolving tale down until it was inscribed into the epic that we have today. The opposite has been argued also, however. Concerning the second question, that of if Homer wrote both The Iliad and The Odyssey, several points have been brought up. One point brought up is the fact that they have been thought to be written over a generation apart, which, if true, makes it very unlikely for one man to have composed both of these classic epics. The other point brought up is the amount of variances in the writing of these epics, especially in writing style and word choice and phrasing. It has been proposed by several scholars that the authors of The Iliad and The Odyssey be named Homer I and Homer II, respectively. However the origin of these epics, they are classics and served as cornerstones for the early Western literature, and possibly even modern as well. The Iliad has been ascribed to Homer in approximately 750 BC. This would put his writing several centuries after the completion of the Trojan War, currently thought to have occurred in 1185 BC. Homer is writing in what historians call the Dark Ages of Greek history, in which the Greek population saw a virtual elimination of literacy. By the time his epics were composed, literacy had begun to return, which is one of the reasons his works became so popular. Homer reflects on a different time, almost a half millennium earlier, reflecting on an era known as the Heroic Age. This contrasts directly with the contemporary society of Homer, in which the quality of life dropped tremendously. The Iliad, in essence, recounts the story of part of the tenth year of the Trojan War. It recounts of the anger of Achilles, the greatest warrior present at Troy, and of the background battle that is ensuing. The background story of the Trojan War is assumed to be known by the reader, and Homer focuses his energies on expanding the characters of the epic, showing the reader that he is more a dramatist than a pure historian, writing for pleasurable purposes rather than strictly educational purposes. The main theme of The Iliad is the anger of Achilles, even starting in the first line of the play. The wrath of Achilles is brought on by the irrational actions of the leader of the Greek forces, Agamemnon. Achilles refuses to fight against the Trojans, and the Greeks suffer accordingly without their top warrior. Two other themes are intertwined around this main theme, one being the Trojan War, and the final being the will of Zeus, my subject. These intertwining themes meet in the end of the epic, when Achilles wrath is curbed and he returns to battle. The role of Zeus in Homers Iliad is one of moderator and the overall director of all that occurs in this story. His position was to ensure that whatever fate decreed would happen. As I stated before, without his presence, the story would likely become a war playground for the gods instead of the Greeks and Trojans. Zeus stayed impartial throughout almost the entire epic in contrast to the other gods, who would scheme and contrive plans for the sides that they chose to ally with. For example, Hera, his wife, chose to display the more typical actions of a Greek divinity. Paris, a Trojan prince, chose Aphrodite as the fairest over Hera and Athena, and this infuriated her, and she went to no end to try to help the Greek army defeat the Trojan side (Classics in Translation, 14). However, Hera recognizes the superiority of Zeus over herself as well as the rest of the Olympian gods. Hera is obviously the subservient god, even becoming afraid and ceasing speaking when Zeus orders her under the possible occurrence of him laying his invincible hands on her (Iliad, Book I, 30). She does try to undermine his power by trickery, slyly getting him to sleep while her and her brother, Poseidon, god of the seas, influence the war in the favor of the Greeks (Iliad, Book XIV, 334). However, when Zeus awakens, his reemergence into the picture effectively eliminates the other gods from intervening in the war due to his sheer will and backing power (Iliad, Book XV, 349). The opposing gods were mainly Apollo and Artemis, twin brother and sister. They favored the Trojan side, and were constantly turning the tide in favor of the Trojans. Apollo respected Zeus and his enforcing of the laws of fate, however, and kept fate as it was deemed to be. An example of this is when Achilles servant, Patroclus, tries to take the city of Troy. Before Patroclus was allowed to wear Achilles armor into battle, he promised only to drive the Trojans away from the ships and not to take an offensive against the city of Troy. Only the reflection of Patroclus by Apollos shield three times prevents this. This lack of moderation shown by Patroclus, as well as the deeming of death before the end of battle by fate, granted by Zeus, leads to his death (Iliad, Book XVI, 398). Zeus serves as an enforcer of fate in the epic, giving no ground to anyone, even his blood relatives. Zeus also shows no mercy to mortals in The Iliad. His own son, Sarpedon, was allowed to die at the hands of Patroclus while Zeus looked on, unwilling to break fate and save even his own son. Zeus was debating whether or not to take him from the battlefield, but Hera convinced him by expressing the feelings other gods would have, namely anger. She told him that he would not be praised and that other gods would possibly take their loved ones out of battle as well (Iliad, Book XVI, 391). Zeus was confined to his own sorrow because he was not willing to take his son out of the battle. Zeus was able, however, to have Apollo take his body from the battlefield and take him back to Lykia, where he could be buried as a hero (Iliad, Book XVI, 397). Patroclus, another example somewhat discussed previously, was also fated to die when he took an offensive against the Trojan city. It was fated for him to die in battle, and it was Zeus who then aroused the spirit in Patroclus breast (Classics In Translation, 37). This led him into his inescapable fate, to which Zeus was unerring and emotionless. Zeus will only enter into the fray of the Trojan War if fate is not being followed, and will only alter situations until fate has been met. At the end of the epic, when Achilles is finally roused back into battle, he turns the fate of the war so much to the Greek side that Zeus temporarily allows the other gods back into the war to ensure the city of Troy is only sacked when fate decrees, and not a second earlier. Zeus interferes in the war in areas that fate has nothing to do with, such as glory and honour. Zeus helps Hector, the main hero of the Trojan side, in his attainment of honour when he takes the armour of Achilles off the body of Patroclus. Only Achilles could fit into the incredible armour, but with Zeus intervention, Hector was enabled to fit into the armour as well, proving himself no less of a man than Achilles (Iliad, Book XVII, 408). Zeus knew of the fate of death of Hector at the hands of Achilles, and felt that the increase in honour of Hector was necessary. Zeus also wanted a respectable and honourable death for Hector, the Trojan hero, and was infuriated when Achilles decided to desecrate the body of Hector. This epic ends when Hectors body is ransomed back to the Trojan side to the pleasure of Zeus, in essence wrapping together the themes of the wrath of Achilles and the presence of all-powerful Zeus. Zeus has an overriding presence in The Iliad, sometimes not directly present, but always in the mix. He is the only presence in the epic that stresses the Greek ideals of moderation and fate. The Greeks believed in the ideal of moderation and the essence that moderation was the key to becoming a better person. Fate also could not be avoided in the eyes of the Greeks, and when fate was trifled with, bad things happened, as they did when fate was trifled with in The Iliad. The presence of Zeus in the epic affected every action taken or avoided in some shape, way, or form. His allowance of other gods intervening in the war at times strengthens the idea that he is all-seeing, all-powerful, due to the fact that the other gods intervention inevitably led fate back onto its original course. In the eyes of the Greeks, the Trojan War was a spectacular event to the mortals, but to the gods, it was nothing more than a mere petty struggle. However, the idea of fate must always be kept under all circumstances, and Zeus was the overseeing power that ensured this in The Iliad. Chapter III Analysis Sub Topic I: ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ Personal Intentions Zeus acted in a way that was not considered normal for the Greek Gods, because in Greek mythology the gods were always intervening. This was considered as a part of life. Zeus was portrayed as a father figure because he was fair to both sides. Without him the Trojan War would become a battleground for the gods themselves. Zeus is befitting to his role because of his power which is greater than all the other gods combined and also because of his experience. The main theme of the Iliad is the anger of Achilles. This is brought about by the irrational acts of Agamemnon the leader of the Greeks. This causes the Greek army to suffer accordingly. There are also two other themes in the story. One is the Trojan War itself and the other is the will of Zeus. The will of Zeus is so great that it is regarded as a theme in itself. These themes meet in the end resulting in Achilles wrath being curbed and he returns to battle. ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ will was to allow things to happen in the way that fate decreed it should happen. Zeus stayed impartial to the sides in contrast to the other gods which include Athena, Hera, Poseidon and Hermes on the side of the Greeks and Aphrodite, Apollo, Artemis and Leto for the Trojans. A simple example of the typical behaviour of a Greek god/goddess would be the actions of Hera. When Paris decided that Aphrodite was the fairest god over Hera and Athena, Hera was infuriated and went to no end to help the Greeks. However Hera knows that Zeus is mightier than her and ceases speaking when Zeus threatens her with is invincible hands (Iliad, book I). Even after this Hera still tries to help the Greeks by tricking Zeus into sleeping with her, while Poseidon influenced the war (Iliad, book XIV). An example of Zeus enforcing fate was when Patroclus tried to take the city of Troy. Before Patroclus was allowed to wear Achilles armour into battle, he promised to only drive the Trojans away from the ships and not take an offensive to the city. Only the reflection of Patroclus by ApolloÃ¢â¬â¢s shield prevents this. The lack of moderation by Patroclus and the decision of death before the battle by fate granted by Zeus, leads to his death (Iliad, Book XVI). Zeus gives no ground to anyone, even his son Sarpedon whom he let die under the hand of Patroclus. Zeus however was able to make Apollo take out the body from the battlefield and send him back to Lykia, where he would be buried a hero (Iliad, XVI). Even in the example of Patroclus it was already decided that he was to die in battle and it was Zeus who Ã¢â¬Å"aroused the spirit in PatroclusÃ¢â¬â¢ breastÃ¢â¬ . At the end of the story, Achilles goes back into battle he turns the fate of the war so much towards the Greek side that Zeus allowed the other gods to temporarily go back to war to ensure that Troy is only sacked when fate says so. ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ personal intentions lie in the areas where fate plays no part, such as glory and honour. Zeus helps Hector in the attainment of honour when he takes AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ armour off Patroclus and puts it on himself. Only Achilles could fit in the incredible armour but with the help of Zeus, Hector fits in it as well, proving himself no less of a man than Achilles (Iliad, XVII). Zeus knew that Hector was going to die and that an increase in glory and honour was necessary. Zeus also intervened when Achilles, after killing Hector, decided to desecrate HectorÃ¢â¬â¢s body. The epic ends when the body is ransomed back to Troy to the pleasure of Zeus. This wraps up the themes of the will of Zeus and the wrath of Achilles. Zeus has an overriding presence and is the only presence which upheld the Greek ideals of moderation and fate. This ends my analysis on the personal intentions of Zeus. Sub Topic II: How Zeus helped the Trojans One of the most notable ways that Zeus helped Troy was when Achilles overcame his wrath and decided to com back to the battlefield. When Achilles returned, his retaliation was so great. Because of this Zeus feared that Troy would be taken before it was the right time. In response to Achilles massive retaliation, Zeus allowed the gods to return to the battlefield. This allowed more time for Troy and in the end allowed Troy to fall at the time fate decreed it to fall. Another way that Zeus helped Troy was when Hera seduced Zeus with glamour and love charms from Aphrodite. When Zeus saw her, he was so overwhelmed and he said that she was more beautiful than the wife of Ixion who bore him Peirithoos, sweet Danae who bore him Perseus, Europa who bore him Minos and Rhadamanthys, Semele who bore him Dionysos, Alkmene (Alcmene) who bore him Herakles (Heracles), the queen Demeter, and glorious Leto, mother of Apollon and Artemis (Iliad, book 14). While Zeus was asleep, Poseidon then went to help the Achaians. Luckily for the Trojans, PoseidonÃ¢â¬â¢s bellowing and shrieking awakened Zeus. When Zeus awoke he realized HeraÃ¢â¬â¢s treachery and PoseidonÃ¢â¬â¢s boldness. He then sent Iris to warn Poseidon of his folly. Poseidon saw the wisdom of retreating and did so. Then Zeus sent Apollo to revive Hector and charge the Achaians back to their ships, thus rebalancing the battle. Zeus did several other things for Troy, including raising the honour of his beloved Hector and sending SarpedonÃ¢â¬â¢s body back to Lykia where he would be buried a hero. Sub Topic III: How Zeus helped the Achaians Zeus helped the Achaians directly by allowing fate to happen. That act in itself gave the Achaians the victory because Troy was already fated to fall. If Zeus had gone against fate, the Achaians would fail and Troy would not fall. Zeus also helped the Achaians indirectly by falling for the charms Hera used on him. This gave Poseidon the chance to help the Achaians turn away the Trojans who already reached the ships of the Achaians. Another way that Zeus helped the Achaians indirectly was by sending Agamemnon a sinister dream. The dream then took the form of old Nestor and said to Agamemnon Ã¢â¬Å"Sleeping, son of Atreus, tamer of horses? You should not sleep all night, not as a captain responsible for his men, with many duties, a great voice in the conferences of war. Follow me closely: I am a messenger from Zeus, who is far away but holds you dear. Ã¢â¬ËPrepare the troops,Ã¢â¬â¢ he said, Ã¢â¬Ëto take the field without delay: now may you take by storm the spacious town of Troy. The Olympian gods are of two minds no longer: HeraÃ¢â¬â¢s pleading swayed them all, and bitter days from Zeus await the Trojans. Ã¢â¬â¢ Hold on to this message against forgetfulness in tides of day when blissful sleep is gone. Zeus intended to destroy the Achaians in windrows by their ships but instead of this happening, Achilles came back and the Achaians succeeded. With this Zeus hit two birds with one stone. He did glorify Achilles because of his promise to Thetis and he also followed fate by allowing the Achaians to triumph and overthrow Troy. Chapter IV Conclusion My conclusion on the role of Zeus is that Zeus is a moderator and overall director of everything that occurs in the story. His job in the story is to ensure that everything fate decreed would happen. As was stated before, without ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ presence the story would become a war playground for the gods, instead of the Achaians and the Trojans. Unlike the other gods who wanted to help the sides they were allied to ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ interests lie in things that are not affected by fate like glory and honour. Compared to the other gods, Zeus stayed impartial to any side through the whole epic. The other gods would scheme and make plans to give the side they allied with the upper hand. The result of ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ impartiality was that Zeus was not considered as a typical Greek divinity. The more common action of a Greek divinity would be to destroy any person who infuriates him or her. A perfect example, albeit a commonly used one, would be Hera. When Paris chose Aphrodite over Hera and Athena, Hera was infuriated and went to no end to defeat the Trojans. Comments My comments on this book would be very positive. As I am an avid fan of Greek mythology, this story really appealed to me. The translation puts out all doubts as to how the original writer would want it written. The description and detail are so precise, which is great and it makes the book so much better.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Definition of Order Number 1 In the days of the Russian Revolution of 1917, an order went out to the countrys military which almost destroyed its ability to fight, and made a takeover by socialist extremists more likely. This was Order Number One, and it had only good intentions. The February Revolution Russia had experienced strikes and protests many times before 1917. They had once, in 1905, experienced an attempted revolution too. But in those days the military had stood with the government and crushed the rebels; in 1917, as a series of strikes convulsed the political orders and showed how a Tsarist government that was dated, autocratic and would rather fail than reform had lost support, the Russian military came out in favour of the rebellion. The soldiers whose mutiny helped turn strikes in Petrograd into RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s February Revolution in 1917 initially came onto the streets, where they drank, fraternized and sometimes held key defensive points. The soldiers began to swell the newly appearing councils - the soviets - and allowed the situation to become so bad for the Tsar that he agreed to abdicate. A new government would take over. The Problem of the Military The Provisional Government, made up of old Duma members, wanted the troops to return to their barracks and regain some form of order, because having thousands of armed people wandering around out of control was deeply worrying to a group of liberals who feared a socialist takeover. However, the troops were afraid theyÃ¢â¬â¢d be punished if they resumed their old duties. They wanted a guarantee of their safety and, doubting the integrity of the Provisional Government, turned to the other major government force which was now nominally in charge of Russia: the Petrograd Soviet. This body, led by socialist intellectuals and comprised of a large body of soldiers, was the dominant power on the street. Russia might have had a Provisional Government, but it actually had a dual government, and the Petrograd Soviet was the other half. Order Number One Sympathetic to the soldiers, the Soviet produced Order Number 1 to protect them. This listed soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s demands, gave the conditions for their return to barracks, and set out a new military regime: soldiers were responsible to their own democratic committees, not appointed officers; the military was to follow the orders of the Soviet, and only follow the Provisional Government as long as the Soviet agreed; soldiers had equal rights with citizens when off duty and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even have to salute. These measures were hugely popular with the soldiers and were widely taken up. Chaos Soldiers flocked to carry out Order Number One. Some tried to decide strategy by committee, murdered unpopular officers, and threatened the command. Military discipline broke down and destroyed the ability of huge numbers in the military to operate. This might not have been a major problem were it not for two things: the Russian military was attempting to fight World War One, and their soldiers owed more allegiance to the socialists, and increasingly the extreme socialists, than the liberals. The result was an army which could not be called upon when the Bolsheviks gained power later in the year.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Financial statement - Essay Example (Strategos, 2014) An inventory turnover is the number times per year inventory is replaced. A quick turnover is desired in business because it is a reminder that inventories should not stay in the shelves too long. A high ratio means that sales are doing good and shows lower risk of too many unsold stocks. Inventory turn-over that is out of proportion to the industry norms is an indication of marketing problems of management like poor customer services 3. Current Ratio. Although the Current Ratio for 2013 is lower than 2012, this should not be a matter to be worried about by creditors, because the ratio is still high. This means company can still pay its maturing obligations. The accounting rule states, Ã¢â¬Å"the higher the ratio, the more capable the company is of paying its obligations and a ratio of below 1 means company would not be able to pay its obligationsÃ¢â¬ (Accounting Coach 2014) 4. Debt to equity ratio. The D/E shows a slighter decrease in 2013. A 0.25 D/E ratio means the company has not been aggressive in financing its growth. A low D/E is favorable to stockholders because it does not use a lot of debt to increase its operations. A D/E is the Ã¢â¬Å"proportion of companyÃ¢â¬â¢s asset supplied by companyÃ¢â¬â¢s creditors vs. the amount supplied by the stockholders.Ã¢â¬ (Accounting Coach 2014). 5. Gross profit ratio. As in previous ratios, the 2013 GPR shows variance with 2012 exhibiting a lower ratio. GPR is the % of sales available for expenses and profit after the cost of goods sold is deducted, it is otherwise known as gross profit margin. I believe the average is not risky because Industry average of 33.91% is not very far from 0.3461 our case.(CSIS Market, 2014) . 6. Return on assets means the number of cents earned for every dollar of assets. A high value of ROA high means business is profitable. Comparing the 0.41% ROA to the industry average, which